Of Trypillians

The origin of peo ple on the Earth is unknown. All hypotheses boil down to two of them whiare Darwin’s theory – about the origin of animal species through natural selection (and then the origin of human – by sexual selection) and Moses ‘ one – about the creation of human by God. As far as none of the setheories  have any confirmations, faith remains main instrument of choice. “One will be saved by what he believes in”. To reconcile the fanatical atheists and moderate creationists, we offer our point of view. It is simple: some people have been created by God whereas others have evolved from the monkey. And, if to concern human being as not just perishable and unadapted body but creature origined from outside the Earth by struggling for  survival, something internal indicated by conscience, honor, compassion, generosity, sacrifice,the idea of what God inserted immortal soul into – a clay pitcher or a monkey origined from the world broth despite all laws of thermodynamics – will be lost. Watever it was the first primal people (or the last highly developed monkeys), differing from animals by building an artificial world around themselves (drawings, ornaments) and understanding the higher, intangible (the burial of the dead) things , were evenly dispersed throughout the inhabited surface of our planet as Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons. They were engaged in gathering and hunting. In the post-Flood times (here descriptions of truth made by Moses and scientistscoincide), 7 thousand years BC. on the land where Ararat is located, in Asia Minor, there were settlements of the first farmers and herdsmen. From this place their culture spread to the west to Balkans (Apeninsky, then the Iberian peninsula), where the culture of monochrome ceramics and the Starch-Krish culture have been crea ted, and later on to the interfluve of the Danube and the Southern Bug. Here they found the most favorable conditions for the implementation of their latest technologies. On these lands civilization of the first farmers, which we now call the culture of the painted pottery Tripillia-Cucuteni, has reached its thriving peak. Undoubtedly, the migration process continued, and in the neighborhood with Tripilli, original agricultural sedentary cultures emerged: cultures of linear-band ceramics, culture of hammered ceramics, Vinca, Ryossen, Lendjela, Boyan, Badenskaya, funnel-shaped cups. But the artifacts of these cultures are found scarce and small. Only in Ukraine it was discovered (as of 2014) more than two thousand cultural monuments of Tripillia-Cucuteni’s culture.

The culture of Tripillia-Cucuteni existed between 5500 and 2750 BC., located between the Carpathians and the Dnieper river on territories of modern Ukraine, Moldova and Romania with a total area of more than 350 thousand km. In the heyday of culture, it occupied the largest settlements in Europe: the number of residents of some of them exceeded 15 thousand people. Trypillian tribes occupied the areas of Eastern Europe from the Dnieper to the Carpathians, from Polissya to the Black Sea and the Balkan Peninsula. In the second half of the VI millennium and in the first half of the V millennium BC. the tribes of Trypillian culture were dissipated in the basin of the Dniester and the Southern Bug, on the land of modern Podillya, where researchers discovered many early settlements. And the main worldfamous phenomenon of Trypillians is their huge cities with clear rows of two-stored cottages, cleverly planned streets and broad squares. Trypillians did not have anopportunity to copy all this – the sizes of European cities of that time were ten times smaller and counted about 500 citizens. The cities of the Tripolyeans counted more than 10,000 inhabitants! Many researchers have no doubt that it was the Trypillians who created the first urban civilization in world history. In Ukraine the following pro-cities are found up to now: Close to Talyanka – about 3600-3500 years BC, 15 000-25 000 inhabitants, in 2700 houses, an area of 450 hectares; close to Dobrovody – about 3800 BC, up to 10,000 inhabitants, an area of 250 hectares; close to Maidanetskoe-about 3700 BC, 6 000-10 000 inhabitants, up to 1575 houses, the area of 270 hectares; close to Nebelovka – about 4000 BC, an area of 300 hectares; close to Merry Kut – an area of 150 hectares; close to Kostenovka – an area of 120-180 hectares. Trypillian civilization was one of the first societies to solve the food problem. The products supply was sufficient not only for themselves, great amounts of food stuffs were exported to Caucasus, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Balkans. Trypillians were not only skilled farmers, but gifted artisans as well. Their tools were made of stone first but in 3600-3150 BC. they already had workshops for processing the main neolithic raw material – flint, which was used to make arrowheads, sickles, scrapers, axes and other tools. The world began to develop bronze at the end of III millennium BC. Trypillian bronze ware sdateback to V millennium BC. ! Already at that time Trypillians used a large number of high-quality copper tools with no neither gas porosity nor cracks. While the world believes that the first image of the wheel was found on the Sumerian frescoes of southern Mesopotamia (3200 BC), on Trypillian ceramic figurines it has been present since 5000’s BC. E. And the image of a horse in archaeological trypillian materials occurs much more often than in other cultures of that time. The same as statuettes of other domestic animals – cows, bulls, pigs, cats, dogs. According to the Finnish scientist Asko Parpola, an Indologist from the Helsinki University, there are linguistic reasons to believe that the wheel was invented in Trypillian culture on the territory of modern Ukraine. Almost in every Trypillian housing archeologists find from 30 to 200 highly artistic ceramic products – saucers, bowls, jugs, cups, amphorae, crater-like fruit-fruit of impeccable quality. They are thin, smooth, artfully painted in white, black, red and dark chestnut color. The rhythm of the ornament is perfect, it is saturated with symbols and signs. In every Trypillian house there was a loom, sometimes even two. Trypillian hostesses were very experienced inmaking shirts, dresses, skirts. They decorated their fabrics with original and colored ornaments. On top of the dress Trypillian women put on a necklace of copper, gold, silver, stone, glass beads, sea and river shells. One of the most notable aspects of this culture was the periodic burning of settlements so that duration of each village existence made about 60-80 years. The purpose of burning these settlements is still the subject of debates among scientists. Some settlements were built several times over previous housing levels, preserving the shape and orientation of old buildings. In Podouri, Romania, there were found thirteen levels of housing which were built on a top of each other during many years.

… And then Tripolis civilization was gone. It suffered the same fate, which will be comprehended in the future by all highly developed and well-fed civilizations of the world. Its extinction lasted almost thousand years. Culture was fading, though, people were still living. But the holy land can’t stay empty. And it was settled by more primitive tribes of Indo-Europeans of the Middle Stogi culture, equestrian warriors, official inventors of the wheel. That time all cultures of painted ceramics died.

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